Is Legionella testing covered by insurance?

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Legionella is a type of bacteria that can cause a severe respiratory infection known as Legionnaires’ disease. This bacteria is commonly found in water sources such as hot tubs, cooling towers, and plumbing systems. With the potential health risks involved, many individuals and businesses are seeking ways to test for the presence of Legionella in their water systems.

While Legionella testing is an important step in ensuring the safety of your water supply, the question of insurance coverage often arises. It’s crucial to understand the specifics of your insurance policy and any potential limitations or exclusions that may apply. In this article, we explore the topic of Legionella testing and its coverage under different insurance policies, providing you with the information you need to make informed decisions regarding your health and safety.

What is Legionella?

Legionella is a genus of bacteria known for causing a severe and potentially deadly respiratory disease called Legionnaires’ disease. The bacteria responsible for this disease, Legionella pneumophila, was first identified in 1976 when an outbreak of a mysterious illness occurred during an American Legion convention in Philadelphia. Hence, the name “Legionella.”

Legionella bacteria are commonly found in natural water sources such as rivers and lakes, but they can also thrive in man-made water systems like cooling towers, hot water tanks, and plumbing systems. When these bacteria multiply in water sources, they can become aerosolized and inhaled by humans, leading to respiratory infections. Legionnaires’ disease typically presents with symptoms similar to severe pneumonia, including high fever, cough, shortness of breath, muscle aches, and headache.

In addition to Legionnaires’ disease, there is another, less severe illness caused by Legionella bacteria called Pontiac fever, which resembles a mild, self-limiting flu-like illness with symptoms like fever and muscle aches. Preventing Legionella infections involves maintaining and regularly cleaning water systems, especially in buildings with complex plumbing or cooling systems, to minimize the growth and spread of these bacteria. Proper water treatment, disinfection, and control measures are essential to reduce the risk of Legionella-related illnesses.

Where Can You Get Legionnaires?

Legionella bacteria are naturally present in the environment, primarily in water sources. Here are some common places where you can potentially be exposed to Legionella:

  • Water Tanks and Water Systems: Legionella bacteria can proliferate in water tanks, cold water storage tanks, hot water cylinders, and cold water systems. Stagnant water in these systems creates an ideal environment for Legionella growth.
  • Shower Heads and Electric Showers: Showerheads and electric showers can become contaminated if not cleaned and maintained regularly. Inhaling aerosols created during showering is a common way to be exposed to Legionella.
  • Instantaneous Water Heaters: These heaters can sometimes harbor Legionella if they are not properly maintained and cleaned. The risk is particularly high in systems that allow water to stagnate.
  • Potable Water Systems: Legionella can be present in potable water systems, which can be a source of exposure if the water is contaminated.


What are the symptoms of Legionnaires disease?

How to Test for Legionnaires

Regular testing for Legionella is crucial in identifying and preventing outbreaks of Legionnaires’ disease. Here are the steps involved in testing for Legionella:

  • Sample Collection: Collect water samples from different points in the water system, including hot and cold water outlets and showerheads. These samples are then sent to a certified laboratory for analysis.
  • Laboratory Analysis: Trained professionals in a certified laboratory will culture and test the water samples for the presence of Legionella bacteria.
  • Interpretation of Results: Once the laboratory analysis is complete, the results will indicate whether Legionella bacteria are present in the water system.

It is essential to conduct regular testing, especially in environments with a high risk of Legionella contamination. A water management plan should outline the frequency of testing and the actions to be taken based on the results.

Who Is Responsible for Water Safety?

Landlords have a legal duty to ensure their properties, particularly residential buildings, are safe for their tenants. This includes protecting them from the risk of exposure to Legionella bacteria. Compliance with legionella risk assessments and water safety plans is a legal requirement for landlords to ensure safe water systems.

Additionally, businesses and public institutions are obligated to implement water management programs to minimize the risk of Legionella contamination on their premises. This may include regular testing and monitoring of water systems.

Factors that Influence Insurance Coverage

Given the potential health risks, as well as the legal and financial implications associated with Legionella outbreaks, many building owners and managers seek insurance coverage to protect themselves and their occupants. The question that often arises is whether Legionella testing and control measures are covered by insurance.

The availability and extent of insurance coverage for Legionella-related issues can vary significantly. Insurance policies are designed to mitigate risks and provide financial protection, but the specific terms and conditions of coverage may differ from one policy to another. It’s essential to understand what insurance can and cannot cover when it comes to Legionella.

Policy Type

The type of insurance policy a building owner or manager holds can significantly impact coverage. General liability insurance, property insurance, or specialized coverage for environmental risks can all play a role in determining what aspects of Legionella-related issues are covered.

Policy Wording

The language used in the insurance policy is critical. It defines the scope and limits of coverage. Building owners and managers must carefully review the policy wording to understand what is covered and under what conditions.

Compliance with Regulations

Insurers may consider whether the insured party was compliant with local regulations and legal requirements. Demonstrating that all necessary Legionella testing and control measures were undertaken in line with the law can influence coverage.

Maintenance Practices

Insurance providers may assess whether proper maintenance practices were in place. Regular maintenance and adherence to best practices can positively affect coverage.

Retroactive Coverage

Some insurance policies may offer retroactive coverage, which can be crucial if a Legionella issue is discovered after the policy is in effect. This type of coverage can protect the insured from costs related to past issues.


Insurance providers will examine whether negligence played a role in the Legionella issue. If negligence on the part of the insured is evident, it may affect coverage.

Perform a Legionella risk assessment

Potential Coverage Scenarios

To gain a better understanding of the types of situations where insurance may provide coverage for Legionella-related issues, let’s consider some potential scenarios:

  • Liability Claims: If someone becomes ill with Legionnaires’ disease due to Legionella contamination in a building’s water system and files a liability claim against the building owner, general liability insurance may cover legal expenses and settlements.
  • Property Damage: If a Legionella issue results in damage to the property, property insurance may provide coverage for the costs of repairs and remediation.
  • Business Interruption: Legionella outbreaks can lead to business interruptions, especially in commercial settings. Business interruption insurance may cover lost revenue during the period when the business cannot operate.
  • Third-Party Claims: Insurance policies may also provide coverage for third-party claims, such as those made by contractors hired to perform Legionella testing and remediation.
  • Environmental Policies: Some policies designed specifically to cover environmental risks may offer coverage for Legionella-related issues, especially if they result from environmental contamination.


It’s important to note that while insurance can offer financial protection, it is not a substitute for robust Legionella prevention and control measures. Building owners and managers must prioritize the health and safety of their occupants by following best practices, complying with regulations, and conducting regular Legionella testing and risk assessments. Insurance should be viewed as a safety net rather than a primary means of Legionella risk management.

Consultation with Insurance Providers

Given the complexities surrounding insurance coverage for Legionella-related issues, building owners and managers should consult with their insurance providers to gain a clear understanding of the scope of coverage provided by their policies. It is advisable to work with insurance professionals who specialize in environmental risk management to ensure that the policy aligns with the specific needs and circumstances of the property. Insurance providers can offer guidance on risk mitigation and loss prevention, helping building owners and managers take proactive steps to minimize the risk of Legionella contamination and improve their chances of securing favorable insurance coverage. 

How to Prevent Legionnaires Disease

Preventing Legionnaires’ disease involves a combination of proactive measures to control the risk of exposure to Legionella bacteria. Here are some key prevention strategies:

  • Maintain Proper Water Temperature: Legionella bacteria thrive in warm water. Ensuring that water systems are set at appropriate temperatures can inhibit their growth. For hot water, the recommended temperature is 60 degrees celsius (140°F), while cold water systems should be below 20 degrees celsius (68°F).
  • Regular Cleaning and Disinfection: Regularly clean and disinfect all water systems and components, including shower heads, water tanks, and hot water cylinders. This helps prevent the development of Legionella and reduces the chances of Legionella outbreaks.
  • Implement a Water Management Plan: Develop and adhere to a comprehensive water management plan that includes risk assessments, testing protocols, and measures to mitigate Legionella risk. This is especially important for commercial and public facilities.
  • Monitor and Control Stagnant Water: Stagnant water in any part of the water system can promote the growth of Legionella. Implement measures to prevent water stagnation and ensure proper circulation.
  • Educate Occupants: Educate residents, employees, and tenants on the importance of water safety and Legionella prevention. Encourage good hygiene practices and prompt reporting of any issues related to water quality.
  • Install Filtration Systems: Consider using water filtration systems that can help remove harmful bacteria from the water supply. This can be a valuable addition to Legionella prevention efforts.

Legionella Risk Assessment Services

Legionella Risk and PAT provides comprehensive Legionella risk assessment services to help businesses and property owners effectively manage and mitigate the risk of Legionella contamination. Our expert team conducts thorough assessments, water testing, and evaluation of water systems to ensure compliance with safety regulations.

Frequently Asked Questions

Legionella risk assessments are vital for landlords to ensure the safety of their properties. They involve evaluating water systems to identify potential sources of Legionella bacteria, ensuring compliance with legal requirements, and implementing preventive measures.

Building managers can prevent community outbreaks by regularly maintaining water systems, monitoring water temperature, and conducting Legionella risk assessments to identify and address potential sources of contamination, ensuring a safe environment for occupants.

Cooling towers must maintain water temperatures outside the range conducive to Legionella growth. Regular monitoring and maintenance of cooling towers help reduce the risk of Legionella contamination, leading to lower rates of Legionnaires’ disease in the community.

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